herausgegeben von Häberlein, Mark
Before the teaching of foreign languages was institutionalized in public schools in the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, the legal and material circumstances of language teachers were often precarious. Despite a strong demand for linguistic skills in the higher echelons of early modern society – among the nobility, urban patricians, merchants, officers and high-ranking public officials – the teaching of modern languages lacked central elements of an honorable trade: formal training, mandatory qualifications for entering the profession and corporate organizations. The profession was correspondingly multi-faceted: It included religious refugees, discharged soldiers, former clergymen, impoverished noblemen, jobless doctors and lawyers as well as artisans who had acquired language skills during their journeymen years in foreign countries. The careers of many language teachers were marked by high geographic mobility and personal crises such as religious conversion, flight and expulsion, abortive professional careers, delinquency, indebtedness and failed marriages. Only a minority were able to integrate themselves into the privileged group of urban citizens. On the other hand, princely courts and universities offered new career options to language teachers. At least some language teachers in courtly and academic settings as well as individuals who acquired exceptional popularity and status in larger cities managed to escape the precarious circumstances which characterized the lives of most of their colleagues. This collection of essays examines the social and cultural history of this heterogeneous profession in several European countries – France, Germany, Poland, Hungary, Latvia – and also addresses the teaching activities of women and members of religious minority groups.
https://opus4.kobv.de/opus4-bamberg/fro ... ocId/44422
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