how do arabs understand whether a verb is active or passive?

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jimmy
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how do arabs understand whether a verb is active or passive?

Postby jimmy » Sun Mar 28, 2021 5:00 pm

hi,
how is that being differentiated?
should we solve/analyze each sentence one by one?

a notation: this therad is not about oral communication. it is about written texts only.
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Maiwenn
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Re: how do arabs understand whether a verb is active or passive?

Postby Maiwenn » Mon Mar 29, 2021 1:54 pm

In my experience, passive verbs usually end up with their harakat (at least the first syllable) included to make clear it's the passive form and not the active. For example, this is a sentence I found in a book I'm reading:

بعد ذلك قليل، يُفتَح باب المطبخ ويدخل أخو ليلى...

يُفتَح (passive) has short vowels marked, يدخل (active) does not.

Translation: a little after that, the kitchen door opens and Layla's brother enters.

Do you have examples of sentences you're confused about?
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Double SC French Reading: 5975 / 10000
Half SC German Reading: 392 / 2500
Arabic Output Writing: 4671 / 50000 Speaking: 171 / 3000

Corrections are always welcome. :)

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Re: how do arabs understand whether a verb is active or passive?

Postby jimmy » Mon Mar 29, 2021 6:54 pm

وخريجي الدكتوراه الذين يبلغون من العمر 35 عاماً أو أقلّ والذين يدرسون أو يجرون أبحاثاً في علم الفلك أو علوم الحياة والطب أو علوم الرياضيّات

for instance the verbs above : يبلغون
يدرسون

note : I do not mean I do not understand it wholly,rather ,I say that it is not sufficiently clear when I quickly overview it.
thanks for the response

if your comment is valid and applies to all texts ,it seems there is no problem.
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Maiwenn
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Re: how do arabs understand whether a verb is active or passive?

Postby Maiwenn » Mon Mar 29, 2021 7:17 pm

يبلغون and يدرسون are both active in that example.

Passive is fairly rare. For that reason, writers generally include the harakat to indicate that it is passive. Context also usually helps to tell if it's passive or active.
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Arabic Output Writing: 4671 / 50000 Speaking: 171 / 3000

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Maiwenn
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Re: how do arabs understand whether a verb is active or passive?

Postby Maiwenn » Mon Mar 29, 2021 7:36 pm

Naturally, right after writing this, I came across a common exception: َيُقالُ\قِيل

وكانت أمّي تغضب وتُخبرها أنّ هذا لا يقال أمام البنات
Translation: And my mother got mad and told her that that is not said in front of girls.

يقال is passive, but since it's such a commonly used word, it doesn't need harakat. There's no confusion as to whether is an active form. Harakat is included when needed to prevent confusion.

تُخبرها is active from the verb أخبر. It is a form IV verb.
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Full SC Arabic Reading: 4158 / 5000
Double SC French Reading: 5975 / 10000
Half SC German Reading: 392 / 2500
Arabic Output Writing: 4671 / 50000 Speaking: 171 / 3000

Corrections are always welcome. :)

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Re: how do arabs understand whether a verb is active or passive?

Postby Querneus » Tue Mar 30, 2021 1:10 am

Yeah, a few verbs are very commonly used in the passive, so they don't give much trouble, because you already expect them that way. يُوجَدُ yuujadu, the passive of وَجَدَ wajada (يَجِدُ yajidu, وُجُودٌ wujuud), is very common as a verb meaning 'there is'.
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