Team Me: Foxing around

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reineke
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Re: Team Me: Foxing around

Postby reineke » Wed Oct 11, 2017 3:11 am

Shocker: In Search of Lost Time really rather good
I thought I knew a bit about Proust's culturally enshrined novel, but trivia and surrounding theory are no substitute for direct engagement.

"Two weeks ago, I wrote about how I was preparing to begin reading Proust's In Search of Lost Time. Writing from the other side of volume one, The Way by Swann's, I'm experiencing that odd feeling you get when a piece of art so culturally enshrined as to become meaningless turns out to be - stop the presses - really rather good.

When I say meaningless, I mean it in a practical sense. I thought I knew a bit about the novel, but trivia and surrounding theory are no substitute for direct engagement. In fact, reading The Way by Swann's reminded me of visiting New York for the first time: I'd seen the city so often in films that I experienced a sense of absolute familiarity repeatedly pricked by the reality of my not knowing where the hell I was. Upon sitting down with Proust I soon found that the cliches about his writing (a man who detested cliches so much he claimed they made his teeth ache), while basically accurate only describe the surface without ever - those sensitive of tooth should look away now - getting to the heart of the matter.

So, here are a neophyte's brief impressions of where the truth might lie between what I knew already and what I know now.

I'd heard that the opening 30 pages are about the narrator, Marcel, trying to get to sleep. In fact it's closer to 50, but in any case this tidbit is so reductive as to be nonsensical. It's like saying The Odyssey is about Greek island-hopping. "

https://amp.theguardian.com/books/books ... oflosttime
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reineke
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Re: Team Me: Foxing around

Postby reineke » Fri Oct 13, 2017 2:07 pm

Word Anomalies

"It would be interesting to know for a given book what words are used uncommonly often or, likewise, uncommonly infrequently. To compute this, the relative frequency of each words is sampled from the database at large and then compared to the frequency in each book. Not surprisingly, these 'Anomalous Word Summaries' paint an incredibly accurate picture of the work.

Sample of Word Anomalies

The Bible (King James Edition); Anonymous / Various
Frequent: unto, lord, isreal, shall, god, moses, jesus, david, offering, tabernacle
Infrequent: girl, boy, school, success, condition, listen, princess

Wonderful Wizard of Oz; Baum, Frank
Frequent: woodman, scarecrow, witch, tin, emerald, monkeys, kansas, brains, winged
Infrequent: mother, money, soul, natural

White Fang; London, Jack
Frequent: musher, beaver, sled, dogs, cherokee, snarl
Infrequent: letter, person, window, green, sweet, loved, party, paper

The Republic; Plato
Frequent: guardians, unjust, true, injustice, state, gymnastic, rulers, democractical
Infrequent: miss, girl, boy, prince

Alice's Adventures In Wonderland; Carroll (C.L. Dodgson), Lewis
Frequent: gryphon, turtle, caterpiller, mock, dodo, mouse, rabbit, hedgehog
Infrequent: death, country, happy, fair, common

Origin of the Species; Darwin, Charles
Frequent: species, varieties, subaerial, selection, sterility, plants, modification, forms, variability
Infrequent: person, government, love, thinking, god, evil, fire

Communist Manifesto; Marx, Karl/Engels, Friedrich
Frequent: bourgeois, proletariat, communists, antagonisms, revolutionising, socialism, production, class, feudal, reactionary, exploitation, conditions, crises
Infrequent: said, love, why, heart, mother, poor, felt

Paradise Lost; Milton, John
Frequent: wonderous, heaven, satan, dominations
Infrequent: country, church, horses, sister

Apology; Plato
Frequent: corrupter, accusers, demigods, socrates, oracle, indictment
Infrequent: she, work, morning, replied, body

Gargantua and Pantagruel; Rabelais, Francis
Frequent: codpiece, catchpole, ballocks, dingdong, fart, chitterlings, gymnast, arse
Infrequent: smile, existence, feelings, british, professor, suffering

1st Inaugural Speech; Roosevelt, Franklin Delano
Frequent: foreclosure, interdependence, uneconomical, leadership, outgo, unsolvable, values, redistribution, national, emergency
Infrequent: you, her, his

The Jungle; Sinclair, Upton
Frequent: packingtown, packers, stockyards, fertilizer, slaughterhouses, streetcar, lituanian
Infrequent: influence, village, pray, gods, example

20,000 Leagues Under The Sea; Verne, Jules
Frequent: manometer, canadian, captain, frigate, harpoon, cuttlefish, submarine
Infrequent: garden, justice, ladies, laughed, wife

Time Machine; Wells, H. G.
Frequent: psychologist, sphinx, traveller, machine, i, lever, dimension
Infrequent: mother, dear, money, friends, horse, peace

War of the Worlds; Wells, H. G.
Frequent: martians, leatherhead, artilleryman, londonward, cylinder, pit, scullery
Infrequent: love, king, truth, gentleman, joy, youth

Moby Dick; Melville, Herman
Frequent: whale, sperm, harpooner, pequod, leviathan, fishery"

http://www.mine-control.com/zack/guttenberg/
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reineke
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Re: Team Me: Foxing around

Postby reineke » Fri Oct 13, 2017 4:41 pm

Gargantua and Pantagruel
Lexile score: 1340
Unique words: approx 26,000
High vocabulary density
This is one of the most vocabulary dense books in the Project Gutenberg database.

French audiobook:
http://www.litteratureaudio.com/livres- ... s-rabelais

English translation
http://gutenberg.readingroo.ms/1/2/0/12 ... image-0005

Moll Flanders
Lexile score: 1390
Unique words:approx. 6100
Low vocab density.
French audiobook: http://www.litteratureaudio.com/livre-a ... nders.html

English text: http://www.gutenberg.org/files/370/370-h/370-h.htm

Comparing pears and... Asian pears here but... Gargantua and Pantagruel will serve as a test to see if my French is improving. Moll Flanders is easy and enjoyable... even in Portuguese. My French with all its warts is a heck of a lot better than my Portuguese and the Portuguese version of Moll Flanders is easier to follow than Rabelais' book. Pantagruel is like a special artisanal chocolate milkshake: delicious, but too thick and nearly impossible to drink through the thin straw that is my French. Littérature audio is a great site. Both readers are great.

"Whereunto (in your opinion) doth this little flourish of a preamble tend? For so much as you, my good disciples, and some other jolly fools of ease and leisure, reading the pleasant titles of some books of our invention, as Gargantua, Pantagruel, Whippot (Fessepinte.), the Dignity of Codpieces, of Pease and Bacon with a Commentary, &c., are too ready to judge that there is nothing in them but jests, mockeries, lascivious discourse, and recreative lies; because the outside (which is the title) is usually, without any farther inquiry, entertained with scoffing and derision. But truly it is very unbeseeming to make so slight account of the works of men, seeing yourselves avouch that it is not the habit makes the monk, many being monasterially accoutred, who inwardly are nothing less than monachal, and that there are of those that wear Spanish capes, who have but little of the valour of Spaniards in them. Therefore is it, that you must open the book, and seriously consider of the matter treated in it. Then shall you find that it containeth things of far higher value than the box did promise; that is to say, that the subject thereof is not so foolish as by the title at the first sight it would appear to be."
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reineke
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Re: Team Me: Foxing around

Postby reineke » Tue Oct 17, 2017 1:39 am

Consolidation of vocabulary during sleep: The rich get richer?

Highlights

• Different neural mechanisms may support word learning in children and adults.

• Children show larger proportions of slow-wave sleep that supports consolidation.

• Consolidation in adults can benefit from richer existing knowledge.

• Meta-analysis suggests extant vocabulary is associated with new word consolidation.

• Directions for uncovering prior knowledge influences on consolidation are proposed.


Abstract
"Sleep plays a role in strengthening new words and integrating them with existing vocabulary knowledge, consistent with neural models of learning in which sleep supports hippocampal transfer to neocortical memory. Such models are based on adult research, yet neural maturation may mean that the mechanisms supporting word learning vary across development. Here, we propose a model in which children may capitalise on larger amounts of slow-wave sleep to support a greater demand on learning and neural reorganisation, whereas adults may benefit from a richer knowledge base to support consolidation. Such an argument is reinforced by the well-reported “Matthew effect”, whereby rich vocabulary knowledge is associated with better acquisition of new vocabulary. We present a meta-analysis that supports this association between children’s existing vocabulary knowledge and their integration of new words overnight. Whilst multiple mechanisms likely contribute to vocabulary consolidation and neural reorganisation across the lifespan, we propose that contributions of existing knowledge should be rigorously examined in developmental studies. Such research has potential to greatly enhance neural models of learning."

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/ar ... 3416305784
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reineke
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Re: Team Me: Foxing around

Postby reineke » Tue Oct 17, 2017 2:53 am

Sentence-based attentional mechanisms in word learning: evidence from a computational model

"When looking for the referents of novel nouns, adults and young children are sensitive to cross-situational statistics (Yu and Smith, 2007; Smith and Yu, 2008). In addition, the linguistic context that a word appears in has been shown to act as a powerful attention mechanism for guiding sentence processing and word learning...

Their studies reveal that these learning mechanisms interact in a complex manner: they can be used in a complementary way when context helps reduce referential uncertainty; they influence word learning about equally strongly when cross-situational and contextual evidence are in conflict; and contextual cues block aspects of cross-situational learning when both mechanisms are independently applicable. To address this complex pattern of findings, we present a probabilistic computational model of word learning which extends a previous cross-situational model (Fazly et al., 2010) with an attention mechanism based on sentential cues.

1. Learning Word Meanings
Learning a language involves mapping words to their corresponding meanings in the outside world. Children learn most of their vocabulary from hearing words in noisy and ambiguous contexts, where there are infinitely many possible mappings between words and concepts (Carey, 1978). They attend to the visual environment to establish such mappings, but given that the visual context is often very rich and dynamic, elaborate cognitive processes are required for successful word learning from observation.

A well-studied mechanism for learning word–world mappings from ambiguous contexts is cross-situational word learning (Quine, 1960; Siskind, 1996; Akhtar and Montague, 1999; Yu and Smith, 2007; Smith and Yu, 2008). This mechanism follows a straightforward bottom-up strategy based on statistical co-occurrence of words and concepts across situations. By observing that a particular object, action, or property is in view more often than others whenever a certain unknown word is uttered, the connection between the word and that object/action/property is strengthened over time. Numerous studies have shown that children and adults draw on cross-situational evidence when learning words from different categories, and in various conditions."

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10 ... 00200/full
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reineke
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Re: Team Me: Foxing around

Postby reineke » Tue Oct 17, 2017 5:25 am

When the Second Language Takes the Lead: Neurocognitive Processing Changes in the First Language of Adult Attriters

Although research on multilingualism has revealed continued neuroplasticity for language-learning beyond what was previously expected, it remains controversial whether and to what extent a second language (L2) acquired in adulthood may induce changes in the neurocognitive processing of a first language (L1). First language (L1) attrition in adulthood offers new insight on neuroplasticity and the factors that modulate neurocognitive responses to language. To date, investigations of the neurocognitive correlates of L1 attrition and of factors influencing these mechanisms are still scarce. Moreover, most event-related-potential (ERP) studies of second language processing have focused on L1 influence on the L2, while cross-linguistic influence in the reverse direction has been underexplored. Using ERPs, we examined the real-time processing of Italian relative-clauses in 24 Italian-English adult migrants with predominant use of English since immigration and reporting attrition of their native-Italian (Attriters), compared to 30 non-attriting monolinguals in Italy (Controls). Our results showed that Attriters differed from Controls in their acceptability judgment ratings and ERP responses when relative clause constructions were ungrammatical in English, though grammatical in Italian. Controls’ ERP responses to unpreferred sentence constructions were consistent with garden path effects typically observed in the literature for these complex sentences. In contrast, due to L2-English influence, Attriters were less sensitive to semantic cues than to word-order preferences, and processed permissible Italian sentences as outright morphosyntactic violations. Key factors modulating processing differences within Attriters were the degree of maintained L1 exposure, length of residence in the L2 environment and L2 proficiency – with higher levels of L2 immersion and proficiency associated with increased L2 influence on the L1. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that high levels of L2 proficiency and exposure may render a grammatical sentence in one’s native language ungrammatical. These group differences strongly point to distinct processing strategies and provide evidence that even a “stabilized” L1 grammar is subject to change after a prolonged period of L2 immersion and reduced L1 use, especially in linguistic areas promoting cross-linguistic influence.
https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10 ... 00389/full
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Re: Team Me: Foxing around

Postby reineke » Tue Oct 17, 2017 5:38 am

Native-likeness in second language lexical categorization reflects individual language history and linguistic community norms

Second language learners face a dual challenge in vocabulary learning: First, they must learn new names for the 100s of common objects that they encounter every day. Second, after some time, they discover that these names do not generalize according to the same rules used in their first language. Lexical categories frequently differ between languages (Malt et al., 1999), and successful language learning requires that bilinguals learn not just new words but new patterns for labeling objects...

.. We find only a modest age of earliest exposure effect on L2 category native-likeness, but importantly, we find that classroom instruction in L2 negatively impacts L2 category native-likeness, even after significant immersion experience.

In this study we examined the relative effects of four language history variables in predicting learners’ outcomes in L2 lexical categorization native-likeness. Highly significant interactions were found among these variables, supporting the idea that language history (e.g., age of L2 onset) variables should not be evaluated in isolation from other variables. Significant age of L2 onset effects were observed, but these effects were tempered by the positive contribution of increased immersion experience. A surprising observation was that increased experience with L2 prior to immersion was actually associated with reduced native-likeness of L2 lexical categorization. Finally, we found that for bilinguals with long-term L2 immersion, patterns of language use (i.e., code-switching habits) were a significant predictor of L2 native-likeness, but for learners with less immersion experience (including no immersion experience), language use was a less important predictor of L2 native-likeness.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4209811/
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Re: Team Me: Foxing around

Postby reineke » Thu Oct 19, 2017 1:43 am

Обычный Мультик -pretty easy to follow in both Russian and Portuguese. B1? Физрук was tough.
Yes it's colloquial, slangy and slurred but I've also noticed that some simple sentences were harder to catch due to ambient noise. In dubbed TV shows ambient noise is lost* and since original cartoon series don't have any extra sound ambience that's worth mentioning. the dubs sound extra clean.

*Guide to Postproduction for TV and Film: Managing the Process
By Barbara Clark, Susan Spohr

Difficulty scale:
Dubbed kiddie shows>dubbed TV shows/cartoons/documentaries>native soaps/cartoons>TV drama>movies

I can still learn a lot from Kipper and Peppa Pig.

Обратная сторона Луны is good. Екатерина feels a lot easier than it did when I sampled it... last year? I should have kept watching. Instead, I chose to watch stuff in Spanish and Portuguese. No harm done.
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Re: Team Me: Foxing around

Postby reineke » Sat Oct 21, 2017 1:00 pm

For Stephen King fans. A continuation from here:
https://forum.language-learners.org/vie ... wer#p86631

Stephen King Word Count

11/22/63 – 274,672

Bag of Bones – 203,313

Black House – 252,270

Blockade Billy – 15,917

Carrie – 60,718

Cell – 121,931

Christine – 193,602

Cujo – 121,150

Cycle of the Werewolf – 15,955

Desperation – 195,011

Doctor Sleep – 165,215

Dolores Claiborne – 93,842

Dreamcatcher – 220,590

Duma Key – 205,713

End of Watch – 119,362

Firestarter – 153,268

Finder’s Keepers – 124,224

From a Buick 8 – 126,685

Insomnia – 244,627

IT- 444,414

Joyland – 82,641

Lisey Story – 185,440

Misery – 114,949

Mr. Mercedes – 137,259

Needful Things – 256,217

Pet Semetary – 144,758

Rose Madder – 176,537

Salem’s Lot – 152,041

The Colorado Kid – 36,346

The Dark Half – 156,654

The Dark Tower I – The Gunslinger – 63,842
The Dark Tower II – The Drawing of the Three – 126,955
The Dark Tower III – The Waste Lands – 174,991
The Dark Tower IV – Wizard and Glass – 258,809
The Dark Tower IV.5 – The Wind through the Keyhole – 94,030
The Dark Tower V – Wolves of the Calla – 214,153
The Dark Tower VI – Songs of Suzannah – 128,019
The Dark Tower VII – The Dark Tower – 276,982

The Dead Zone – 152,270

The Eyes of the Dragon – 103,526

The Girl who Loved Tom Gordon – 62,221

The Long Walk – 88,141

The Plant – 89,285

The Shining – 160,863

The Stand – 472,376

The Talisman – 274,547

The Tommyknockers – 260,663

Under the Dome – 334,074
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reineke
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Re: Team Me: Foxing around

Postby reineke » Sat Oct 21, 2017 2:45 pm

Exploring linguistic patterns in best-selling book series
A textual analysis of Game of Thrones, Harry Potter, Hunger Games and Lord of the Rings books

HP has a higher lexical density and lower understandability than LOTR and... The Game of Thrones?

https://medium.com/@dimitrisspathis/exp ... 0290c94242

For completeness, here are the lexile measures of the said books:

Harry Potter by J. K. Rowling, (Lexile Levels 880 - 1030)
Lord of the Rings by J. R. R. Tolkien (Lexile Levels 810 - 920)
A Song of Ice and Fire
Lexile score: 830
The Hunger Games
Lexile score: 810
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