Iversen's second multiconfused log thread

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Iversen
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Re: Iversen's second multiconfused log thread

Postby Iversen » Wed Jan 22, 2020 4:14 pm

EN: I'm ready to add one more message to my history of Western classical music, but today I have a problem: the idea was to start in Finland, then take the ferry to Estonia and further on to Latvia and Lithuania. I guess I can concoct something in Russian and (later on) Polish ... but Finnish ? Nope. Estonian, Latvian, Lithuanian ? nope, nope, nope :oops:. So today some of the text will be in English, the rest in Esperanto. And then I'll have to add the missing languages later :evil: .

First a controversial question: was there ANY music in Finland before Sibelius, apart from folk music, played and sung by itinerant kantele players? And I have to say that the answer is: no. What functions as the national poem of Finland, "Kalevala", was compiled from texts collected by an amazing man named Elias Lönrott (1802-1884), who was employed as a district health officer in the town Kaajani in the middle of the country. However much of the content came from Karelia, which was occupied by the Sovjet Union during the second world war and never returned. In these poems we get a whole gallery of heroes (Väinämöinen, Lemminkäinen), a goddess Ilmatar and wood nymphs and men and a place called Pohjola and lots of other things from a legendary world that has little to do with anything from outside Finland. The nearest parallel would probably be the works of Tolkien, and it is a wellknown fact that Tolkien was inspired by the Kalavala..

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Jean Sibelius (or rather: Johan Julius Christian Sibelius, 1865-1957) was born in a Swedish family, but was inscribed in Finnish speaking schools. His father was dead, but several members of the family could play music. He received a violin from his uncle, and this later became his preferred instrument. He started out composing music at the age of 7, but the first big work (from 1892) is the hourlong symphony Kullervo for choir and soloists and orchestra (though it can be cut down to 28 minutes by leaving out the vocal sections). The text was taken from Kalavala, and using a text in Finnish was actually quite controversial at the time. Finland had been under Swedish rule for centuries, but had been ceded to Russia in 1814. Much of the cultural elite was however still clinging to Swedish as the proper language for Finnish culture. Soon after he published "A saga" for orchestra and the music to the play Karelia, both with clear references to Finnish folk music. And then the Lemminkäinen, alias "Four Legends from Kalevala". As you see, Sibelius was totally enthralled by his discovery of Finnish folklore during this early period, which culminated in the tone poem Finlandia from 1899. It took a further 18 years for Finland to become independent, so writing this piece was definitely a political manifestation from the composer.

He then started his series of symphonies, with a rough and folklore inspired no. 1 and then onwards through a brooding dark no. 4 to the almost serene 6. and 7., which were followed in 1926 by the masterly tone poem Tapiola, and ... well, nothing - no eight symphony. He did start writing it, and a few fragmentary sketches have been found, but for some unknown reason he destroyed his unfinished work and never ever again wrote anything substantial (apart from a few insignificant pieces for the freemasons and revisions of a couple of old works). So for all practical purposes he withdrew from active music making and just lived off his lifelong honorary pension. There are few other cases in the musical history where this has happened, with Charles Ives as the most known case (and me as the least known one), but the problem with Sibelius is that nobody understands why he stopped composing at the peak of his artistic powers - maybe it simply was in disgust over the direction of classical Western music, which clearly wasn't moving in his direction.

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Without real forerunners, did Sibelius have contemporary collegues? Well, there was a guy called Järnefeldt, but he went to Stockholm in 1905 and became a fulltime conductor. So the next composer worth mentioning here would be the much younger Uuno Klami (1900-1961), who like Sæverud yesterday was a brave man with a penchant for the local folklore - so he published his own five-movement Kalevala suite, though he waited until 1943, long after Sibelius had withdrawn from active service. And Klami's work - which in my opinion is a worthy companion to the elder composer's Lemminkäinen cycle - is as dark and brooding as that of Sibelius. Actually it is hard to find a work of a major Finnish composer that is uniformly polyanna happy and cheerful. Other composers from the 20. century include excellent, but little known names like Mellartin and Madetoja. It would be exceedingly difficult to find their works anywhere outside Finland - except on Youtube.

And now we take the ferry to Estonia.

EO: Kaj kial Esperanto, vi petas? Bone, mi ankoraŭ ne scias la estonan, kaj la gehomoj mallaboregas se oni ili ĉion servas sur arĝenta plado en la angla lingvo.

Kompreneble, estona muzika historio komenciĝas kun centoj da jaroj, kiam homoj kantis popolajn kantojn en la kamparo, sed neniu kolektis kaj notis ĉi tiun materialon sur paperon.. Nur ekde ĉirkaŭ 1850 kelkaj akademiuloj komencis kolekti tekstojn. Unu el ili, F.R. Kreutzwald (notu la germanlingvan nomon!), kolektis siajn trovaĵojn en la poemo "Kalevipoeg", tiel iĝante paralelo al la Kalevala de la finnoj ... sed Estonio neniam trovis sian Sibeliuson.

Laŭdire la plej konataj komponistoj estas Arvo Pärt kaj Veljo Tormis, kaj mi scias iomete pri ilia muziko, sed ĝi plejparte estas voĉa - kaj tiale iom pala por mi. La estonaj komponistoj, kiujn mi preferas, nomiĝas Artur Lemba kaj Heino Eller - kaj denove: mi nur konas ilin per Youtube.

Kaj nun al Latvio. Mi sciis nenion pri iliaj popularaj tradicioj tie, sed Vikipedio asertas, ke iliaj popolkantoj "dainoj" enhavas gediojn kaj gehomojn, sed neniujn geheroojn - kaj estas tiome strange, ke oni devis plupripensi la aferon. Sed mi ŝatas lasi ĉi tiu laboro al aliaj, pli kvalifikitaj.

Kaj kiujn klasikajn komponistojn el Latvio mi povus nomi? Mi studis unu liston kun latvaj komponistoj en Vikipedio kaj alia listo de 10 komponistoj kiujn mi "devus scii"... sed estas tiom multe ke oni devus. Fakte mi nur konis kvar el la nomoj (sed intencas serĉi verkojn de almenaŭ kelkaj el la ceteraj). Tipa malĝoja sorto: Emīls Dārziņš (1875-1910). Li estis malriĉa, malsana kaj trinkis tro multe, do ne kompletigis siajn muzikajn studojn en Moskvo. Post lia reveno al Rigo kelkaj el liaj verkoj ludigitiĝis, sed la kritiko estis tiel devastiga, ke li decidis detrui ĉiujn siajn orkestrajn verkojn - nur unu melankolia valso pluvivis. La komponisto ne - li estis trovita morta sub trajno.

Ni daŭros ĝis Litovio, kie mia ĉefa rekomendo koncernus la pentriston, komponiston kaj verkiston Mikalojus Konstantinas Čiurlionis (1875-1911). Li naskiĝis en pola-parolanta familio, sed ŝanĝis al litovo kiam fianĉiĝis en 1909. En la komenco ĉio iris bone: li estis mirinfano kaj akiris bonan muzikan trejnadon, kaj li havis spertan amantinon kiu povis persvadi lin por lerni novan lingvon (la litovan) - sed bedaŭrinde, jam en 1910 li estis frapita de profunda depresio kaj mortis pro tuberkulozo ĉe frenezulejo. Kun tiaj diversaj agadoj fariĝis lia muzika produktado malgranda - sed provu ekzemple aŭskulti orkestran poemon "Jura". Kaj ne - NE temas pri paleontologio: 'juro' signifas "maro" en la litova lingvo.

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Iversen
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Re: Iversen's second multiconfused log thread

Postby Iversen » Thu Jan 23, 2020 6:44 pm

And now to Russia. This is a big country with lots of music, but most of the known composers date from the 19. century or later. But even with just a few hundred years to deal with the history of Russian music is so bulky that I have decided to describe it in three sections. The first will start early and end with the composers from the 'mighty handful' and their nearest successors. The second will start with Tschaikovsky and Scriabin and then follow some of the composers that left the Sovjet Union at the revolution, and the third one will tell about those that remained (plus Prokofiev who chose to return home to Russia). And after that you won't hear from me for a couple of weeks.

And now Russia.

Russian church music is of course quite old. When Russia was christianized around 1000 AC it adopted the lithurgical musical traditions of Mount Athos in Greece, and the result developed into something called Znamenny song - which is purely vocal so I haven't heard any of it. The byzantine notation system at the time was rather pathetic, with small signs (thereof the name 'znamenny') indicating at best the direction of the melodies. Later small red signs were added to suggest the highest level of a group of znaks, but it was still a complicated and at the same time totally inadequate system of notation, which among other things didn't indicate the rhythm - but this was remedied by given instructions in the choral books, and of course first and foremost through the mouth to ear method. And it was monophone and unison, which made things easier. Certain liturgal reforms were introduced during the 17. century, and the original unadulterated znamenny song was kicked out with 'the old believers', but liturgical music in Russia remained monophone and purely vocal.

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Of course there were folk musicians in the countryside, and of course I know a fair number of folk music melodies (Black eyes and Barge Haulers on the Volga and other popular items), but these melodies were only written down rather late. Actually it seems that a systematic study only was undertaken in the 20. century, long after 'serious' composers had started to integrate the more wellknown songs in their works.

Actually the genuine Russian folk music had a very hard time during the 17. century. The lowest point came with an order in 1648 from zar Alexis Mikhaïlovitch, which simply banned all non-liturgical music "because it led to drunkenness and obscenity"! All folk musicians were to be chased out of the towns and beaten up, and their instruments should be smashed. This sick creep - the second Zar from the Romanov dynasty - ruled Russia from 1645 to 1676. It is said that the triangular instrument called balaika appeared after this debâcle because it was easy to manufacture, and the remaining musicians needed something to replace their old instruments. Whether this is true is anyone's guess.

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The court was not particularly interested in folk music during the 18. century, where the rulers most of the time were female and born outside Russia (not that the native courtiers were any more interested in the cultural life among the poor). The Russian ballet tradition was established in this period, mostly with composers imported from Italy, but the names I knew beforehand all lived during the 19. century. And then something funny happened: when I tried to find out what actually happened in Russia before that I accidentally stumbled over the names of some native Ukrainian composers in the Anglophone Wikipedia article about Russian classical music. I am right now listening to a sinfonia concertante on Youtube by a certain Dmitry Stepanovich Bortniansky, who was totally unknown to me until five minutes ago. It seems to be fairly run-of-the-mill music in a distinctly Italianate style, but nice and well-wrought. The other names quoted were Maksim Berezovsky and Artem Vedel (Artemij Vedelj). It seems that most of the output of these composers was vocal, including some 'choir concertos', but the fact that some of it isn't is quite significant.

IT: Il primo italiano tra quelli che hanno lavorato alla corte di San Pietroburgo che io conosceva per nome prima di scrivere queste linee si chiamava Cesare Pugni. Nasce in Genova in 1802, ma studiava a Milano, dove si ha anche eseguito i suoi primi balletti alla famosa Scala. Ma dopo solo due anni fu accusato di appropriazione indebita di fondi - e c'era anche rumori di gioco d'azzardo e di ubriachezza. Quindi andò a Parigi, poi a Londra e da Londra a San Pietroburgo, dove divenne il compositore preferito del maestro di balletto Perrot (francese). Ma Pugni diventò sempre più inaffidabile per il suo alcolismo e passione per i giochi, e perciò fu sostituito come compositore di balletti dal czecho Aloysius Minkus e da un altro italiano, Riccardo Drigo. OK, potrebbe non sta molto conosciuto il signor Drigo, ma io conosceva - anche prima dell'era di Youtube - la sua Serenata dagli Millioni di Arlecchino. Quanto a Minkus, ha scritto per esempio Il Bayadère. I balletti di Minkus hanno nomi di tutte le lingue, dal francese a traverso l'italiano al tedesco e persino al russo. Bisogna comunque essere consapevole del fatto che era normale per un compositore scrivere la maggior parte della musica, mentre alcune parti sono state scritte da un collega. A volte può essere difficile scoprire chi ha effettivamente scritto una danza particolare.

RU: В У вышеперечисленных композиторов очень мало русского стиля. Первым композитором, который искал вдохновения в русской народной музыке, был Михаи́л Ива́нович Гли́нка (1804-1857) - хотя он фактически провел большую часть своей жизни за пределами России. Его воспитывала его бабушка Фёклой, где он не слышал много музыки, но когда она умерла, он был переведен в замок своего дяди, где был оркестр, и здесь он якобы услышал музыку финского композитора Crusell (1775-1838) .... который Я совсем забыл, когда вчера писал свой раздел о финской музыке (тем самым я смиренно извиняюсь перед финнами EMOJI ). Самыми известными произведениями ГА - оперы "Иван Сусанин" ("Жизнь за царя") и "Руслан и Людмила", но он также написал чисто оркестровые произведения, среди которых наиболее 'русскими', вероятно, была "Камаринская".

Следующим известным композитором был Милий Алексеевич Балакирев (1837—1910), который собрал группу молодых композиторов, известных под общим названием "Могyчая кyчка": Модест Петрович Мусоргский (1839—1881), Александр Порфирьевич Бородин (1833—1887), Николай Андреевич Римский-Корсаков (1844—1908) и Цезарь Антонович Кюи (1835—1918). И эти композиторы были очень вдохновлялись русской народной музыкой, иногда настолько, что исполняли свои произведения под народные мелодии. Балакирев не написал оперы, а взамен ряд оркестровых произведений, в том числе две симфонии и "Тамара" (в честь грузинской королевы Тамары из золотого века Грузии), а также пьесу, просто названную "Россия". А ниже он известен пианистам за то, что они написали фэнтези "Исламей", которой, которая, якобы говорят, чертовско сложно играть.

Мусоргский, безусловно, был самым оригинальным в группе, но его коллеги не особо оценили его интеллекте, и, кроме того, он был печально известным пьющим, что, вероятно, в конечном итоге стоило ему жизни. Он оставил главным образом незаконченных произведений, в том числе оперы "Хованрщина", "Борис Гудонов" и "Сорочинская ярмарка". И затем другие композиторы (включая не в последнюю очередь Римский-Корсаков) должны закончить их - но они часто ослабляли оригинальные причуды композитора. Его самая известная работа (рядом с операми) "Картинки с выставки", но особенно в версии Мориса Равеля для оркестра.

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Александр Порфирьевич Бородин также оставил незаконченные произведения, такие как опера "Князь Игорь" и Третья симфония, но по совершенно другой причине: помимо композитора, он также был композитором также известным химиком и врачом, и такого рода, конечно, занимает много времени. И как будто это не было достаточно, также играл на виолончели, и особенно во 2-й струнной четверти есть несколько тонких мелодий для этого инструмента.

Сезар Цуй не был так одарен как композитор, поэтому он стал музыкальным критиком - и жил очень долго.

И наконец, Римский-Корсаков был чрезвычайно одаренным композитором, стал профессором в университете, где он обучал следующее поколение композиторов - и он жил очень долго (и получил очень длинную бороду). Он написал много опер, но, к счастью, есть записанные оркестровые сюиты из многих из них - и вы найдете некоторые из его самых очаровательных музыкальных произведений. Среди его инструментальных работ находится несколько концертов, но особенно 'симфоническая сюита' Шехеразада с сольной скрипкой. Среди его симфоний, особенно номер 2, "Антар", заслуживает внимания.

Среди композиторов вне группы я бы хотел упомянуть Анатолия Лядова, который написал несколько хороших, но коротких оркестровых произведений и немного фортепианной музыки. Это могло бы быть больше, но он был ленивый до мозга костей.

И среди многих учеников Римского-Корсакова следует упомянуть упомянуть Александра Константинович Глазунов, который сам написал много хорошей инструментальной музыки, но кроме того, он пересмотрел и дополнил произведения других композиторов. И в этом был в значительной степени способствовал его сказочном памятами. Глазунов оказался главой консерватории в Санкт-Петербурге.

Другим композитором, который основывался на экзотических тенденциях Ризми, был Михаи Михайлович Ипполитов-Иванов, которого вы помните в первую очередь для сюиты "Кавказские Эскизы" - и из-за особенно последней части, " Шествие Сардаров". В то время как я все еще покупал виниловые пластинки, одной из моих покупок был LP с сюитой Ипполитова с одной стороны и Рейнгольда Морицевича Глиэра " Красный мак" с другой, и Дональдом Йоханосом в качестве дирижера - и это все еще моя любимая запись обеих работ, но это сьёмка нет на Youtube.

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Iversen
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Re: Iversen's second multiconfused log thread

Postby Iversen » Thu Jan 23, 2020 11:32 pm

RU: Пожалуй, самым выдающимся русским композитором является Цаик. Он настолько известен, что в его честь назван город в Пермской области, хотя он вообще там не родился - он родился в соседнем городе Воткинск). Он был воодушевлен Балакиревым в начале своей карьеры, но с тех пор отношения стали более формальными - возможно, потому, что Чайковский уделял меньше внимания связи с народной музыкой. И, возможно, также потому, что он получил слишком большой успех со своими балетами и другими работами за границей. Я не буду вдаваться в подробности его биографии, но следует упомянуть, что он был вундеркинд, который говорил по-французски и по-немецки (и по-русски) в 6 лет и умел читать партитуры в 8 лет. В Императорском училище правоведения его учили всему, кроме музыки, и планировалось стать чиновником в какой-то административной единице. Но, как вы знаете, это не сработало.

Музыкальное образование он получил с 1861 года в своеобразной частной консерватории в Санкт-Петербурге, а уже в 1865 году ему дали низкооплачиваемую должность преподавателя в Московской консерватории. Его музыка исполнялась часто, с 1868 года до 1890 года, он получил патрон в виде Надежда фон Мекк и с 1884 года он получил пожизненную стипендию царя Александра. Так что же случилось так, раз уж умер в глубокой депрессии - возможно от самоубийства? Но он умер от холеры, и самоубийство от употребления загрязненной воды - довольно неопределенный метод. Ходили слухи о принуждении со стороны знатных родственников одного из любовников Цайковского, но ничего не было доказано. В любом случае ему удалось написать подходящую лебединую песню в форме шестой симфонии "Патетическая".

Наконец, поскольку музыка Чайковского хорошо известна, я упомяну только некоторые работы, которые могли бы оказался слишком далеко вниз по очереди. Первая из них - молодежная работа, увертюра-фантазия "Ромео и Джульетта", вторая - фантазия, "Франческа да Римини", а третья - это ненумерованная симфония "Манфред" ... и, как бывший виолончелист, я, конечно, также люблю "Вариации на Тему Рококо" для виолончели и оркестра стром. С другой стороны, я считаю конец "Увертюры 1812" невыносимо длинным и скучным - и по иронии судьбы я согласен с композитором, который сорвал его в письме к дирижеру!

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Следующим композитором, которого я хочу упомянуть, является Александр Николаевич Скрябин (1871-1915). который начинал как «обычный» романтик и оказался где-то в космосе. Если вы хотите услышать его на этом этапе, этюд опус 2 номер 1 может быть использован. Поскольку он еще находится на стартовой рампе, можно рекомендовать этюды опус 8. И из позднего периода, когда он плавал в своих собственных слоях воздуха, вы можете упомянуть опус 72 "Vers la Flamme" - обратите внимание, что он дал своим произведениям французские имена (что было очень нормально в то время).

Конечно, то же развитие можно увидеть в его десяти сонатах для фортепиано и пяти симфонических произведен: Симфония номер 1 длинная и романтичная (и благозвучащая музыка), в то время как пятая часть в серии, "Прометей" (Поэма огня) для фортепиано, оркестра, хора и цветного фортепиано (!), является диссонансной, частично построенной на самодельном прометеев аккордом ("mystic accord" по-английски) ... и да, цветные пианино тоже не часто встречается на концертах. Но Скрябин был четко синхронизирован - то есть он видел тона как цвета, и наоборот. Он действительно планировал написать работу"Мистерия", в которую также должны быть включены запах и прикосновение - но потом он умер.

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И вот началась революция...

Позже я опишу, как композиторы в Советском Союзе справились с ситуацией. Но некоторые решили бежать, в том числе Сергей Васильевич Рахманинов, и большинство оказались в Соединенных Штатах. Он был романтичным композитором и пианистом с депрессивными наклонностями, и это он продолжал быть. Критика его первой симфонии (1897 года) была довольно резкой и привела к четырем годам депрессии, где он ничего не мог написать. Но психиатр Николай Даль вернул его на круги своя, а Рахманинов написал свой второй фортепианный концерт, один из самых часто исполняемых концертов в наши дни. И, конечно же, он посвящен Далю. После перелета в Соединенные Штаты он написал только несколько работ, но качественние.

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Рахманинов никогда менялся. Игорь Фёдорович Стравинский перешел с работы на работу.

Это особенно заметно в его балетах для балетной труппы Дягилева в Париже. "Жар-птица" из 1910 года была написана в духе Римского-Корсакова, "Петрушка" из 1911 года была набором народной музыки ... а " Весна священная" (Sacre du Printemps) из 1913 года была жестокой вспышкой языческой дикости, которая вызвала дикий гнев - и сделала композитора еще более известным. Если кто-то ставит свои последующие работы на общий знаменатель, это должно быть ... нет, мы отбросим это.

Нельзя сказать, что Стравинский бежал от революции: в период с 1910 по 1914 год он жил по очереди в Швейцарии и России, но когда в 1914 году началась война, он был практически отрезан от этого. После войны он переехал во Францию, откуда он бежал из Соединенных Штатов в 1939 году.

EN: I could continue with many other names, but the last composer I'll comment on in this section is Alan Hovhaness (born as Alan Vaness Chakmakjian), who never set his foot in the USSR, but was born in the USA to an Armenian father and a mother with Scottish ancestry. Nevertheless the Armenian connection is very clear in his music - and there is a lot of that music! It is claimed that he around 1940 destroyed all his earlier works (estimated at some 1000 pieces) because he wanted to start from tabula rasa, but nevertheless he ended up with something like 700 works from the post-destruction era, including at least 67 symphonies. One of the more curious items is his "And god created great whales" with genuine whale sounds or his "Spirit of the Great trees" or his op. 350.1-2 with gamelan solo. Or his symphony no. 50 "Mount St. Helens" from 1982, i.e. two years after the eruption (which he could watch from his home). Or take something more Armenian: his "Prayer of St.George", which actually is a 4½ minut long excerpt from his only opera Echmiadzin. I haven't heard the rest of the opera, but I have been there.

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Re: Iversen's second multiconfused log thread

Postby Iversen » Fri Jan 24, 2020 7:48 pm

После русской революции 1917 года наступил период, когда радикальные композиторы могли развернуться, и я вернусь к ним. Но когда Сталин пришел к власти, это развитие замедлилось, и композиторы были вынуждены написать 'пролетарски'» произведения (некоторые называют это 'социальным реализмом').

В качестве примера можно привести Александра Васильевич Мосоло́в, чей стиль русской Википедии описан таким образом: "В композиции использовал серийную технику, полиритмию и ритмические остинато, в инструментовке — звуки и шумы, предвосхищавшие опыты конкретной музыки." Типичная работа с этого времени: "Завод. Музыка машин". Все шло хорошо в 1920-х годах, но не в 30-х годах, и в 1936 году его отправили в Гулаг. Некоторые из его учителей из консерватории заступились за него, и он был освобожден - но он усвоил урок: охотно фольклор, но безусловно, нет авангардизм.

Несколько консервативных композиторов могли бы продолжить свою деятельность в том же духе, что и до революции. Я уже упоминал Глиера, который писал в простом для понимания стиле с отчетливо русским духом, и это вполне вписывалось в культурную среду при Сталине. Николай Яковлевич Мясковский был также в этой группе старых композиторов, которые избежали конфликта с властями. В свои 30-х годах он стал еще более осторожным, чем в свои 20, но старик, который писал симфонии и квартеты в форме сонаты ... безвреден.

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Основными композиторами следующего периода были Прокофьев, Шостакович и Хачатурян. Прокофьев покинул Россию в 1917 году и гастролировал как пианист-виртуоз, но вернулся в СССР в 1936 году. Его самые провокационные произведения были написаны до революции - можно назвать скифской сюитой - и в более поздних произведениях есть провокационные эпизоды, но в основном композитору удалось сохранить баланс (нет билета в Гулаг). Его испанской жене Лина повезло меньше - ее посадили в тюрьму на пять лет, когда она пыталась отправить деньги своей матери в Испанию. Прокофьев написал семь симфоний, несколько концертов и камерную музыку, но больше всего известен "Любовь к трём апельсинам" и балетами "Золушка" (Cinderella) и "Ромео и Джульетта".

Дмитрий Дмитриевич Шостакович был другим композитором, который постоянно шел по пути между успехом и санкциями режима - не в последнюю очередь после того, как Сталин наблюдал представление оперы "Леди МакБет" в 1934 году н не ей понравилась. Другыь трудныь период наступил в 1946 году, когда немузыкальный аппаратчик по имени Жданов была возложена ответственность за осуществление сталинской культурной политики. В этих обстоятельствах композитору приходилось иметь широкий репертуар: «патриотическую» музыку для публичного использования и больше экспериментальных произведений для домашнего (и будущего) использования.

Арам Ильич Хачатурян родился в Тбилиси, Грузия, и жил в Москве в течение времены, когда он был активным, однако он считается армянским композитором. А действие его самого успешного балета "Гаянэ" приписывается Армении - это что-то вроде храброй героини-коммунистки среди всех народов Кавказа, предмет, против которого цензоры не возражали. И у Хатчатуряна вообще не было столько проблем с цензурой, как у двух предыдущих композиторов. И половина русской статьи Википедии используется для перечисления его наградой и орденов из дома и за рубежом.

И теперь, когда мы на армянском языке, вы можете также упомянуть Арутюнян, Александр Григорьевич, который известен только своим концертом для трубы с оркестром. Но он также написал концерт для тубы.

Композитор, который полностью избежать проблем был Тихон Николаевич Хренников. Он был назначен председателем Союза русских композиторов в 1948 году и сохранил за собой положение после распада Советского Союза в 1991 году. он стал членом ЦК с 1950-х годов и с 1962 года, заседал в Верховном Совете СССР. А в русской википедии его цитируют так: "Сталин, по-моему, музыку знал лучше, чем кто-либо из нас. Он постоянно ходил на спектакли Большого театра и часто водил туда Политбюро — воспитывал, так сказать, своих сотрудников. […] Сталин был совершенно нормальный человек". Если бы Сталин был нормальным ... это преувеличение. Правда в том, что Хренников был изобретателем без каких-либо смягчающих обстоятельств, но на самом деле был опытным композитором, хотя (как можно бы ожидать) в консервативном конце шкалы.
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Re: Iversen's second multiconfused log thread

Postby Iversen » Sat Feb 08, 2020 8:46 pm

I have just returned from two weeks in Southern India, and now I have around 240 photos (some in stereo) plus a mountain of postcards to file into my system, and therefore I will be slightly incapacitated for a couple of days until that has been done. I am aware that some might be curious as to what there is to see in Southern India so I'll also write a short description of my trip down there - but not now (too tired). However I promise that it will be in English since I don't speak any Dravidian language - and for once I won't add "yet". It is almost certain that I won't ever learn Tamil nor Malayalam - for the moment I don't even own a dictionary or grammar for any of these languages.

And after that I'll continue with my history of Western Music in the relevant languages.

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Re: Iversen's second multiconfused log thread

Postby Iversen » Tue Feb 11, 2020 4:19 am

It took me two full days to select and edit my photos and postcards and do the usual registration, including writing the daily travelogue texts. I still haven't done all the maps, but that's a minor task. I started out taking some 800 photos, threw a third out immediately and another third at home, and now I have 270 photos left, plus postcards, and I have already warned my family about the time it will take to look through them.

It was a group tour, and I mostly travel alone, but when you travel through more than a dozen places and sleep in 8 different hotels/resorts plus a house boat in just two weeks it is nice to have all the transport and accommodation sorted out, and the travel route suited me like a glove. I have always wanted to see those delirant temple towers ('gopurams') in Southern India, and when I saw a tour that took me to those I signed the application and shelled out the doe - quite a lot of doe, actually, but I still have enough left to do some travelling later this year. We first flew til Madras airport and went directly from there to Mahabalipuram, followed by Pondicherry, Tranquebar (Danish 'Trankebar'), Tanjore, Madurai, the Western Ghats, the Backwaters, Cochin and a wee place called Marariculam just North of Aleppey ... or rather, we didn't. We first flew til Chennay airport and went directly from there to Mammalipuram, followed by Puducherry, Tharangambadi, Thanjavur, Madurai, the Western Ghats, the Backwaters, Kochi and a wee place called Marariculam just North of Aleppuzha - and a lot of places in betwen which also have changed their names to something else. The authorities are systematically eliminating all the old colonial misheard names in favour of something more Indian and authentic. But apart from Madras (now Chennai) the old colony style names are are still used everywhere alongside the new ones.

The old English administrative borders were scrapped in 1956 in favor of a new system based on linguistic borders, so my trip was almost evenly divided between Tamil Nadu and Kerala, where respectively Tamil and Malayalam are spoken, both Dravidian languages with a very long history. The Hindi of the North come with the Arian invaders and it is an Indoeuropean language (like Sanskrit), but the Dravidian languages aren't - and people in South India are proud of being Southeners. My problem was of course that I don't speak any of these languages, so I had to speak English (and Danish within the group). I did bring a Russian grammar, and near the end of the trip I found a heap of old bilingual printouts from an earlier voyage in my one and only piece of luggage: three pages about exoplanets in Indonesian, something about Sofia zoo and some museums there in Bulgarian and a printout with Wikipedia texts about organ building in half a dozen Germanic languages, including Dutch, Afrikaans, Platt, Alemannic (=Swizz German) and Lower Saxon (whatever that is). And that's how I survived the last 2½ day locked up in a seaside resort.

The last part of the tour (in Kerala) was mainly about nature, while temple and palace tours dominated the first week in Tamil Nadu. In Hindu temples you should normally drop your shoes and sandals, and generally photographing is allowed in open spaces, but forbidden indoors - especially near operating altars. And you can live with that. But at the allegedly most pittoresque one among the lot (in Madurai) the powers that be have become positively paranoid about people depicting the hallowed interiors of their sacred abode, so they demand that you not only leave cameras and telephones safely outside it, but also all paper and pens and ... well, not your trousers, but your socks. And all visitors get frisked.

When I heard that I told our guide that I intended to entertain myself that day, so in the morning I asked the receptionist in which direction the center of Madurai was, counting from the hotel (which wasn't the originally announced one). He didn't know, but told me to walk up to a larger street and then to the left. I did so, but under the vague assumption that the hotel was to the South of the centre (based on some street names containing the word "South") I walked left in the first roundabout. Which brought me into some areas that hardly ever would have seen a tourist. Somehow I crisscrossed my way back to the hotel, where a second man now had joined the first one in the reception, and he knew that the hotel was several kilometers Southwest of the center, and that I would have to cross two bridges to get there. I walked off again, walked right in the roundout, passed the dusty hot car bridges and duly reached the offending temple, and when I sat down on the surrounding low wall to relax I suddenly saw our group come marching. They had already passed through the humiliating ordeal and seen (but not photographed) the fabled inside of the temple, so from then on I followed the group around and got transported back to the hotel by bus. Which just goes to show that you don't have to follow in the footsteps of your guide at all times - even on a group tour you can be on your own and have fun.

Like in Tharangambadi (formerly known as Tranquebar or Trankebar), which for a time was a Danish trading post until it was sold to the Brits in 1845. Here I had skipped lunch to see the tiny town by myself, and while visiting the Indian-Danish cultural centre I came to speak to a lady who had a Danish accent. It turned out that she was connected to the restauration works at the fort in some way, and she offered me to have have a private guided tour through the adjacent Governor's Palace, which normally isn't open to the public. I wouldn't have had that experience if I had been munching away with the group for almost 1½ hour. Actually I often skip lunch during my travels and just eat something while hurrying from one sight to the next one, and I have gained a lot of extra sightseeing time by having that habit. And I ain't dead yet..

When I returned home Saturday evening I copied my photos to my PC and then spent all of Sunday and most of Monday organizing my travel documentation. I did however go downtown for the weekly language café at our main library, and lo and behold, this time there was all in all some ten persons present. First I spoke English to a man I have met there earlier, but we were joined by two ladies, one of whom had a tendency to mix German into her English. So when a Mexican lady came and announced that she would like to speak a bit of German we split up and formed a three person German subgroup and an Anglophone group, which later grew to three persons. And when the lady with the Germanic elements in her English had to leave I of course grabbed the opportunity to have a full speed Spanish conversation in Spanish with the Mexican lady. So this was actually a quite positive experience, compared to the meetings in January where we typically were down to three persons and had to speak English.

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.. and the history of Western music will resume tomorrow with a wee rant about Polish music.
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Re: Iversen's second multiconfused log thread

Postby Iversen » Tue Feb 11, 2020 6:55 pm

Before I started to write the text below I took a peek at the list of Polish composers in Wikipedia, and it has to be said that most of the names there were fairly anonymous even to me - but I did however see some known names which I might have forgotten without that peek. I did remember that Valentin Bakfark was Polish, but I might have forgotten the honorable Diomedes Cato. And pan Długoraj could of course only be Polish - with that name. Both are lute composers from the renaissance ... but hey, Bakfark was not on the list? Well, he was actually Hungarian and called Bakfark Bálint (Valentin Greff in German) - which illustrates the dangers of trusting your memory in murky waters like this.

After that spree of genius there is a void in Polish music. The Wikipedia article does mention some names, but not one I knew beforehand before Karol Kazimierz Kurpiński, who wrote some operas (and a clarinet concert) that helped to establish a national Polish style at a time where there wasn't even a country called Poland. And shortly after him we reach Maria Szymanowska, born 1789 as Marianna Agata Wołowska (and apparently unrelated to the much later Szymanowski). She was a celebrated pianist, who also composed quite decent piano music. In contrast, her younger collegue Tekla Bądarzewska-Baranowska (born 1829) is herostratically known for just one piece, the sobbingly sentimental "Maiden's Prayer" ("La prière d'une vierge"). And in between we find a certain Fryderyk Franciszek Szopen, better known as ...

FR: Frédéric François Chopin (1810-1849), qui a laissé la Pologne déjà en 1830, mais qui se considérait toute sa vie comme un polognais en exil (la plupart du temps en Paris). Le pays était alors partagé entre la Prussie, l'Autriche et la Russie, et son lieu de naissance Żelazowa Wola se trouvait dans la partie russe. Je ne vais pais écrire beaucoup sur sa musique car je suppose que tous ceux qui lisent ces lignes déjà savent de quoi il s'agit. Seulement faut-il souligner qu'il a souvent utilisé de formes de danse populaire polonaises, come la mazurka, la polonaise et - une fois - la cracovienne. Mais la forme de 'nocturne' avait était déjà été inventée par un compositeur Irlandais nommé Field depuis longtemps, et le mot allemand 'Walzer' se trouve utilisé en Vienne déjà vers 1780. Mais c'est Chopin qui a eu l'idée d'en faire un genre pianistique.

POL: W latach 60. kupiłem płytę LP z muzyką organową polskich kompozytorów. I nie znałem wtedy żadnego kompozytora - i tak było przez co najmniej dwadzieścia lat, dopóki nie nagrałem tańca z Halki Moniuszki z audycji radiowej. I innych kompozytorów poznałem najpierw lepiej, kiedy spojrzałem w Youtube. Na korzyść szanownych czytelników przytoczę pełną listę: Stanisław Moniuszko, Władysław Marcjan Mikołaj Żeleński, Gustaw Rogowski, Stanislaw Kazuro, Karol August Freyer, Józef Furmanik, Feliks Nowowiejski, Mieczysław Surzyński i jego nieco mniej znanego brata Józef Surzyński. Oczywiście są czytelnicy, którzy znają tych wszystkich dżentelmenów, ale prawdopodobnie są w mniejszości - prawdopodobnie wśród moich czytelników jest tylko kilku polskich organistów - ale faktycznie odkryłem, że kilku z nich również napisało doskonałą muzykę orkiestrową. Mógłbym wspomnieć o kilku utworach, ale spróbuj na przykład posłuchać uwertury " W Tatrach" F. Zelenskiego lub "Król wiatrów" F. Nowowiejskiego.

Jednym z nielicznych znanych na świecie Polaków z tej rodziny jest Henri Wieniawski, który napisał słynny II koncert skrzypcowy (numer 1 jest mniej znany), a także szereg wirtuozowskich małych utworów skrzypcowych. Wspomnijmy też o Maurycym Moszkowskim (alias 'Moritz Moszkowski'), ponieważ jego nazwisko kończy się na -i - ale jest uważany w Wikipedii za kompozytora polsko-niemieckiego, chociaż jego rodzinne miasto Wrocław (dawny Breslau) w naszych czasach się obecnie w Polsce.

Seria znanych pianistów zaczyna się, jak wspomniała od Szymanowska, kontynuuje z Leschetizky (ur. 1830), ale potem spotyka się polskiego prezydenta w przebraniu Ignaza Paderewskiego. I tak, napisał także muzykę do swojego instrumentu. Trzeba też pamiętać Leopolda Godowskiego, zwłaszcza że był samoukiem jako pianista i kompozytor (i ponieważ nie uważał, że etiudy Chopina były wystarczająco trudne, więc przepisał je tak, aby stały się prawie niemożliwe do zagrania).

Z późniejszych pokoleń szczególnie chciałbym wspomnieć o Karolu Szymanowskim, którego muzyka jest kontynuacją późnego romansu - brzmi bardzo dobrze, ale przypomina trochę ser, który był przechowywany w zbyt ciepłym miejscu przez zbyt wiele tygodni.

Oczywiście w Polsce są później kompozytorzy, ale zakończmy tę historię oto.

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Re: Iversen's second multiconfused log thread

Postby Iversen » Thu Feb 13, 2020 9:38 am

GER: Ich habe mir noch einmal eine Komponistenliste in Wikipedia angesehen um sicherzustellen, daß ich keinen bekannten Komponist aus den heutigen Ländern der Tschechischen Republik und der Slowakei übersehen werde (was natürlich nicht bedeutet, daß ich auch alle bekannten Namen hier unten kommentieren kann). Wie erwartet kannte ich keinen der frühen Komponisten, aber im 17. Jahrhundert wurden mehrere Komponisten geboren, die ich sehr wohl kenne - obwohl nicht unbedingt als böhmische Komponisten.

Nehmen wir zum Beispiel der Trumpetenvirtuose Vejvanovký, der sich auch ettliche Kompositionen für sein Instrument hinterlassen hat. Oder nehmen wir Jan Lukáš Zelenka (heute eher als Jan Dismas Zelenka bekannt), der sehr angesehen war als Komponist von Kirchenmusik und auch Opern komponiert hat, aber hetzutage meistens für seine Instrumentalwerke geschätzt wird. Er schrieb in einem sehr persönlichen, 'eckigen' Stil mit häufigen disharmonischen Akkorde und merkwerdige Rythmen - alles etwas, was eher von Dilettanten erwartet wäre, aber bei Zelenka funktioniert die eigenwilligen Elemente mirakulöserweise.

Der überraschendster Name auf der Liste ist Heinrich Ignaz Franz (von) Biber, aber er steht da, weil er in Wartenberg (jetzt Stráž pod Ralskem in Tschechien nahe Liberec) geboren wurde. Seine Karriere fand aber im heutigen Österreich statt, und er war ganz sicher deutschsprachig. Er ist heute am meisten bekannt (oder berüchtigt) für seine Rosenkrantz-Sonaten, die das bekannteste Beispiel für 'Scordatura' in der Musikliteratur sind, d.h. die Verwendung von ungewöhnlicher Stimmungen. Dies ermöglichte unerwartete Akkorde - und war sicherlich auch eine gute Einnahmequelle für Hersteller und Verkäufer von Violinsaiten. J.S. Bach hat so was auch ein Mal vorgeschrieben, nämlich in seiner fünfte Solosuite für Cello. Aber Biber war offenbar von dieser Prozedur - und von komplizierten Doppelgriffe - total besessen..

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Ich habe bereits manche böhmischen Komponisten aus dem 18. Jahrhundert erwähnt, da sie bei den deutschen Fürsten sehr beliebt waren, darunter nicht zuletzt am einflußreichen Hof von Mannheim. Gehen wir deshalb unverzüglich weiter zu den romantischen Komponisten, und hier begegnen wir natürlich sofort einen weltberühmten Namen, nämlich ..

SLK: .. Bedřich Smetana (1824-1884). Väčšina milovníkov hudby pravdepodobne pozná jeho symfonická báseň "Vlatava" (pravdepodobne pod nemeckým názvom „Moldau“), kde rieka pramení vo forme dvoch píšťal a potom valí okolo polí a hôr a šťastných tancujúcich dedinčanov k ústí nemeckej rieky Labe ('Elben' (toto sa však neobjavuje v hudbe, ktorá je iným spôsobom príkladom programovej hudby - mesto Praha tiež nie je znázornené). Táto dielo je však iba jednou zo šiestich, ktorá tvorí cyklus "Ma Vlast". Všetky diela "Ma Vlasta" sú programová hudba s tematikou českej histórie, a okrem toho zložil aj triumfálnu symfóniu a ďalšie historické diela ako "Valdštejnov tábor", "Richard III“ a "Hakon Jarl" - a niekoľko opier, z ktorých „Predaná nevesta“ je stále známa svojou predohrou a chytľavými tancami.

Smetanov život však bol tragický. Nielenže bol nazvaný to isté ako kyslý mliečný výrobka, ale mal problémy s prehrávaním jeho hudby, a niekoľko rokov emigroval do Švédska, čo treba považovať za isté znamenie hlbokého zúfalstva. Ale ešte horšie: v roku 1874 sa stal hluchým, prinútil ho vzdať sa svojej funkcie v Prozatímním divadle - a napísal smyčcové kvarteto, ktoré nám ostatným ukazovalo, aké to je mať tinnitus. A zomrel v psychiatrickej liečebni, možno iba na Alzheimerovej chorobe, ale možno aj na syfilis. Chudák Smetana!

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Antonín Leopold Dvořák (1841-1904) mal mierne pomalý štart. Svoju prvú symfóniu (Zlonické zvony) predložil súťaži v Nemecku a tam to bolo preč. Teraz to bolo nájdené znova a myslím si, že iba prvá sadzba je dobrá. Druhá symfónia je dlhá a nudná, ale potom všetky symfónie sú vynikajúce. Dlho však bolo známych iba posledných päť, v číslach sú neporiadky - Staré nahrávky symfónie číslo 9 („Z nového sveta“) sa preto často označujú ako číslo 5. Ale táto etapa skončila. Existuje deväť symfónií, basta. A opery a koncerty - vrátane najlepšieho violoncellového koncertu vôbec. A zomrel, zatiaľ čo jeho duchovné schopnosti neboli narušené. Šťastie Dvořák!

Zať Dvorakov, Josef Suk, bol známym huslistom a skladateľom, ktorý písal mierne ťažkým neskororomantickým štýlom. To platí ešte viac pre Jozefa Forstera. Tretím skladateľom toho istého obdobia bol Zdeněk Fibich - jeden z nešťastných skladateľov známych iba z jedného krátkeho kusu, v tomto prípade jeho "Poème" z opusu 41 (zbierka 171 kusokov!). Ale napísal oveľa viac - prečo nikdy nepočuješ nič iné? Keby to nebolo pre YouTube, bol by som stále tak duchovne zmrzačený ako návštevníci koncertov.

Mohol by som pokračovať v zozname s inými skladateľmi, ako je Nedbal (ďalší chudák), Nóvak, Weingartner, Gustav Mahler (áno, on bol vlastne narodený v Kalište v Čechách!) a príjemný pochodový skladateľ Fučík, ale dovoľte mi ukončiť bombardovanie z vesmíru: Leoš Janáček! Je možno najosobnejším a najočakávanejším českým skladateľom, ale znalci jeho hudby a miestnych jazykov tvrdia, že veľká časť jeho sveta zvuku pochádza z intonácií českého jazyka a českej ľudovej hudby. V skutočnosti až do roku 1895 pracoval hlavne na zbieraní hudby, ale potom sám písal veľa hudby - a hoci niektoré z nich znie čudne, medzi nimi je veľa skvostov. Moje najobľúbenejšie je jeho sinfonietta - nielen kvôli báječnému začiatku, ale aj kvôli priechodu v strede, kde aujímalo by ma, že rohi nezomierajú na apoplexiu, zatiaľ čo krv vytiek z uší ich.

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Re: Iversen's second multiconfused log thread

Postby Iversen » Thu Feb 13, 2020 9:41 pm

In the rant about Polish music I have already mentioned Bakfark from the 16. century, who turned out to be Hungarian. And now I have discovered that a couple of supposedly German brothers named Newsidler from the same period also were Hungarian. Besides I have seen that a certain János Kájoni published several collections of dances etc. in the 17. century - but apart from that Hungarian music before the 19. century is a musical void. There must have been folk music, including folk music played by Romani, but it has just not been published. In a Wikipedia article a saw a reference to a certain prince Pál Eszterházy, and this name is interesting because this family employed Joseph Haydn in the following century. And some movements by Haydn and other classical are ostensibly written in Hungarian style. But that's about it - so let's jump directly to the most famous of the lot: Liszt Ferenc - or Franz Liszt, as he later called himself. And since I can't write in Hungarian yet, you'll have to read about him in English. :oops: :roll: :?

He was born i 1811 in a village in the Sopron area, but left his native Hungary already in 1820 where he moved with his family to Venna to study music, and in 1827 he moved onwards to Paris with his mother. And there he met people like Berlioz, but also the famous violin virtuoso Paganini (who'll be mentioned again in a later message about Italy), and during this period he evolved to be maybe the most accomplished piano virtuoso in the world. It was during this period he wrote his Transcendental Etudes. The final piano version was published in 1852, but it is based on pieces written as far back. as 1826. His Années de Pelerinage 1. année (Switzerland) and 2. année (Italy) were written around 1840 during his most intense period as a travelling piano virtuoso-composer, the third year was added much later. On top of that he made arrangements and wrote fantasies over opera arias and other wellknown pieces, which were quite popular in piano recitals at the time. This kind of of music has been vilified by later commentators, but it is worth remembering that the concert goers around 1840 didn't have access to the internet, and well, not even to vinyl nor CDs yet so those virtuoso arrangements on famous tunes filled a veritable hunger for Earth-shattering musical experiences among people of culture at the time.

And of course Liszt wasn't the only one to write that kind of music. I would like to mention his closest competitor, a certain Sigismond Thalberg, who by later know-alls has been dismissed as just another clever piano player trying to impress a credulous crowd with his shallow virtuosity. Maybe these people simply haven't heard pieces like his Fantasy on themes from "Moïse in Egitto" by Rossini (especially the last three minutes), or their venom-dripping hatred of the genre prevented them from saying anything nice about it. Instead they expect us to be enthousiastic about the 3217. performance of Brahms' first symphony or something by Mozart.

However the problem with people like Thalberg is that they never went beyond this flashy kind of composing on borrowed themes, and if there is anything you can't say about Liszt it could be that he should be afraid of moving onwards. Actually he went on to develop the symphonic poem as a genre, he expanded the harmonic possibilities almost to the breaking point in his later works ... and, well he actually let himself be ordained as a priester or something like that - Wikipedia writes: "On 25 April 1865, he received the tonsure at the hands of Cardinal Hohenlohe. On 31 July 1865, he received the four minor orders of porter, lector, exorcist, and acolyte. After this ordination, he was often called Abbé Liszt. On 14 August 1879, he was made an honorary canon of Albano". My, my.. so if you became possessed by a demon Abbé Liszt could cure you! And Hungary? Well, he never went back to settle there permanently, but visited Budapest regularly to give piano lessons. And he wrote those famous Hungarian Rhapsodies - but as Brahms in his Hungarian dances the inspiration came more from the music of perambulating Zigeuner musicians than from the folk music of the Hungarian peasants. It took people like Kodaly and Bartók to tap that source.

But before we get to them I would like to mention a couple of composers that were inspired by the Romani traditions. One of them is known as Kéler-Bela - which reflects the Hungarian habit of writing the family name first, and he wrote among other things several czardas'es and 'Lustspiel-Ouverturen'. And his Bártfai Emlék Csárdás op.31 somehow was 'adopted' by Brahms, who included it in his Hungarian Dances. A kindred spirit was Drdla Franticek, who wrote tarantellas and serenades and a piece called 'souvenir', which sometimes was played on the radio when I was a child - but the politically correct powers that decide concert and TV programs today have killed off that kind of 'salon music'. A third composer that has been eradicated from the concert programs is Hubay Jenö, who among other things wrote a piece called Hejre Kati, which I delighted in playing as a youngster - I'm not sure I could do it today.

The most played Czardas was however not composed by a Hungarian, but by the Italian Vittorio Monti - and it has been recorded by just about any conceivable combination of instruments, here in a version for a hyperactive tuba player plus a piano.

Kodály Zoltán has remained on the concert programs, not least with his Hary Janos suite (from the opera of the same name) and dances from Galanta resp. Marosszék, which are clearly inspired by the music he collected and retained on phonographic cylinders during extensive research travels in the countryside during his student years. This influence is however less evident in his concertos and chamber music. Another composer with a keen interest in the music of the peasants (including those in present-day Slovakia and Turkey) was Bartók Béla, who was a vehement opponent of Nazism and therefor had to flee to USA in 1940 - but he never really felt at home there. His compositions were not popular, and his economic situation was therefore somewhat precarious - although he didn't actually starve. He died of leukemia in the States in 1945, but his body was returned to Hungary in 1988.

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And now I could have written some drivel about the two operetta composers Lehár and Kálman, but I prefer to move slightly southwards to Romania, where we simply don't have any wellknown composers before the Turks left the country.

RO: Avem totuși în secolul al XIX-lea - ca și în Ungaria - câțiva compozitori care s-au inspirat din muzica populară țaranii și, în special, din musica muzicienilor țigani. O singură piesă a supraviețuit în mintea populară: Hora Staccato de Grigoras Dinicu. Îmi amintesc că stăteam într-un restaurant din Budapesta, unde era un jucător rezident de vioară. A jucat diverse melodii pop și melodia rusească "Ochi negri" fără prea mult de entuziasm, dar când eu l-am rugat să joace Hora Staccato, s-a luminat - în sfârșit o piesă la care ar putea pe deplin să demonstrează abilitățile sale ca violonist. Dinicu a scris, desigur, și alte piese de muzică, dar nu le auzim niciodată - decât pe Youtube. Cu toate acestea, există o sursă de folclor românesc, și anume cu jucătorul de nai ('flaut de pan'), Gheorghe Zamfir - în special timpuriile înregistrări sale, înainte de a fi convins să-și învârte instrumentul său cu pop american și alte mizerii irelevante.

Singurul compozitor român care a fost recunoscut de lumea muzicală este Gheorghe Enescu, mai ales pentru cele două rapsodii sale românești. De fapt, a devenit atât de recunoscut în patria sa, încât că orașul său de naștere a fost numit după el, și e asemenea există un muzeu care să-l onoreze în București. Și da, a fost un compozitor excelent (și presupus echipat cu o memorie supraumană), dar acest far muzical acoperă o mulțime de compozitori cu total uitați, precum Porumbescu, Knümann, Brânzeu, Bretan, Rogalski și Negrea.
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Re: Iversen's second multiconfused log thread

Postby Iversen » Tue Feb 18, 2020 6:36 am

And now a trip to Italy, a country which I last mentioned the 6. and 7. January. And there I wrote that a man named Peri generally is accredited with the invention of opera, but it was his collegue Monteverdi who made it popular just after the year 1600. And it isn't too much to say that the Italians from then on became totally obsessed with this new genre. They certainly had instrumental composers too during the subsequent baroque periode, like for instance il 'prete rosso' Vivaldi , and during the subsequent second half of the 18.century and into the 19. century they also had a few composers that wrote concertos and chamber music, like Paisiello, Cimarosa, Viotti, Salieri (who didn't murder Mozart) and Boccherini (who went to Spain, as I wrote in this thread the 7. January), but in spite of this it was the opera that became the yardstick used to mesure the worth of any Italian composer. And the topics were mostly taken from the antique, and a man like Metastasio churned out dozens of inane libretti which were put into music by dozens of composers.

I mentioned Viotti (1755-1824), who worked as a travelling violinist and theater director and wrote no less than 29 violin concerts. He could be seen as a link between the late baroque virtuosos like Tartini and Locatelli and the virtuoso bombshell Paganini (1782-1840) , who got his breakthrough with a concerto at the La Scala opera hourse in Milano in 1813.

IT: A sei anni, Paganini ha comminciato di suonare il violino, e il suo padre a presto visto le perspettive economiche di aver un figlio talmente talentuoso. Il risultato fu che Paganini fece progressi sorprendenti in un breve periodo di tempo quasi senza aiuto degli suoi insegnanti, il che ha dato luogo a frottole su contratti con il diavolo e soggiorni in prigioni con soltanto il suo violino come compagnia. Queste storie, insieme alla sua figura cupa e impoverita con dita enormemente lunghe, gli davano un'aura demoniaca che certo andò a beneficio della sua attività concertistica. Ma aveva infatti un lato diverso: suonava anche la chitarra, ma solo nei salotti o con amici e colleghi, mai sul palco.

Per la maggior parte della sua vita Paganini era estremamente secretivo per quanto riguardava sue composizioni: distribuiva le note alle musiciste delle diverse orchestre solo immediatamente prima degli concerti e ha raccolto di nuovo le note subito dopo ogni concerto per evitare che altri possano copiarle. Per molto tempo si pensava che avesse lasciato solo due concerti per violino, ma ora ne sono stati pubblicati altri quattro. E vicino alla sua morte, divenne anche meno paranoico e pubblicò persino alcune opere. Ma c'era un collega il quale è riuscito a ingannarlo: Heinrich Wilhelm Ernst. Ho scritto qualche linie qui su di lui, ma la storia è brevemente che Ernst aveva affittato una stanza accanto a quella di Paganini, e qui ha ascoltato il maestro mentre egli si esercitava le sue variazioni su una tema de Moïse - e poi Ernst ha scritto una copia della musica e suonato il pezzo in uno dei suoi proprii concerti. Il che dev'aver richiesto un bel po' di musicalità, ma le composizioni di Ernst proprio sfortunatamente non possono paragonarsi con quelle di Paganini.

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Dopo Paganini c'è quasi un vuoto nella storia della musica strumentale in Italia: nessun compositore italiano poteva divenire famoso senza scrivere dozzine di opere. Il genere di opera più significativo nel primo periodo preromantico fu l'opera seria, scritta da persone come Cherubini, Spontini e Donizetti. Ma c'è un problema: Cherubini nacque nel 1860, ma si trasferì tra Londra a Parigi già nel 1785, e rimase in Francia per il resto della sua vita, dove infatti riuscí a diventare capo del conservatorio lì. Spontini nacque nel 1874, ma si stabilì a Parigi nel 1803, si trasferì a Berlino nel 1820 (dopo un fallimento dell'opera), poi commutava entre Germania e Francia fino al 1842, dove ritornò a Italia (Roma). Donizetti nacque nel 1797 e ebbe molti successi con le sue opere in Italia, ma nel 1835, su invito del re Luigi Filippo andó a Parigi, tornò brevemente a Napoli, ma nel 1837 tornò definitivamente a Parigi dopo qualche fastidi colla censura napoletana. Non è del tutto sbagliato affermare che il palcoscenico principale dell'opera seria fosse piuttosto in Francia che in Italia, ma i suoi nomi principali erano tutti italiani. Soltanto Vincenzo Bellini (1801-1835), che era un impareggiabile scrittore di melodie di 'bel canto', rimase in Italia per la maggior parte della sua vita (e infatti aveva la maggior parte dei suoi successi lì), ma si deve considerare il fatto che Bellini, come i suoi colleghi trasferì a Parigi nel 1833, ma morì lì dopo solo due anni a l'età di soltanto 34 anni. Dunque ha seguito l'esempio dei suoi colleghi più anziani, e solo la morte ha interrotto il suo stagione a Francia.

E poi venne il signor Rossini (fanfare ed applauso!). Già Bellini ha scritto opere non terribilmente serie, e per questo genero si ha formato il nome 'opera buffa'.E il maestro delle opere bufffe è stato Rossini. Si può ascoltare le suo ouverture (o piuttosto preludii o sinfonie) e è evidente che questo compositore era una persona allegra. Certo, ha anche scritto opere serie, come Semiramide, Otello, Tancredi, e opere con tematica historica come Maometto II e Elisabetta regina d'Inghilterra, ma un grande parte delle sue 39 opere hanno libretti senza tali legami - come la Gazza Ladra ed Il barbiere di Siviglia (presumibilmente scritto in meno di tre settimane). In 1832 scrisse Guillaume Tell, e come si vede già dal nome viveva allora a Parigi. Guillaume Tell fu la sua ultima opera, e nella seconda parte della sua vita - 25 anni! - a scritto soltanto qualche piccoli pezzi per il pianoforte o pianoforte e canto, le "Péchés de vieillesse" ed una missa interminabile, per scherzo chiamata "Petite messe solennelle". L'interesse predominante di Rossini durante questa fase della sua vita fu la cucina piuttosto che la musica, e diversi piatti di cibo prendono i suoi nomi da lui. Morì dalla carcinoma del colon-retto nell'anno 1868.

Il successore di Rossini fu un certo Giuseppe Verdi (1813–1901), che ha scritto almeno 26 opere, spesso con un tema storico come per esempio Nabucco (con il celebre coro dei schiavi), Aida con la sua storia dell'Egitto antico (e la celebra marcia, per la quale sono state progettate trombe speciali lunghe diritte), Giovanna d'Arco, Attila e MacBeth. Altri, come Rigoletto, Il trovatore and La Traviata hanno libretti su temi italiani, ma non direttamente storichi. Verdi aveva spesso problemi con la censura. L'Austria-Ungheria governava gran parte dell'Italia settentrionale e il resto era diviso in piccoli regni più lo stato del papa. Era molto coinvolto nel Risorgimento (cioè il raduno d'Italia, dove hai si ha dimenticato solo di includere San Marino e il Vaticano), infatti tanto che il suo nome fu usato come un "grido di battaglia" durante il processo che portò alla formazione dell'Italia come stato unificato.

Dopo Verdi arrivò un'ondata operatica conosciuta come il verismo, dove si pretendeva di usare temi della vita della gente comune. I nomi più importanti di questo movimento furono Ruggero Leoncavallo, Pietro Mascagni e Umberto Giordano, ma soprattuto Giacomo Antonio Domenico Michele Secondo Maria Puccini, autore di opere ultrafamosi come Manon Lescaut, La Bohème, La Fanciulla del West, Tosca e Madama Butterfly. Fue anche un appassionato assassino di uccelli, al cui piaceva uscire per scopietttare cantorini quando aveva bisogno di una pausa nella sua scrittura di musica.

E la musica strumentale? Bene, finalmente posso nominare un gruppo di bravi scrittori che non pensavano soltanto di produrre ancora più opere, cioè la "generazione dell'ottanta" con nomi come Alfredo Casella, Gian Francesco Malipiero e Ildebrando Pizzetti (da quest'ultimo bisogno ascoltare sopratutto la suita sinfonica detta "La Pisanella"). Ma il compositore più importante di musica sinfonica fu sin dubbio Ottorino Respighi, autore sopratutto di tre suite con tematica romana: "Fontane di Roma", "Pini di Roma" e "Feste Romane", nelle quale ha dimostrato tutto il suo esuberante padronanza della strumentazione. Questo suono opulente è sperimentato anche in altre sue opere, come per esempio il balletto Belkis e le Vetrate Botticelliani . Ma Respighi era anche uno studioso notevole di musica rinascimentale e barocca, e questo lo ha portato a scrivere opere come le due collezzioni di "Antiche arie e danze per liuto" più "Gli Ucelli", tutti basati su vecchi brani originali - e in questo genere non si può NON menzionare il suo balletto "La Boutique fantasque", che consiste da 'péchés' del vecchio maestro Rossini dall'epoca in cui colui era più interessato ai tournedos alla Rossini che ai cantanti e pubblico isterici del mondo operatico.

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